Western part of the Black Sea and the city of Istanbul, with the Genoese citadel of Pera across the Bosphorus. From an illuminated and illustrated early Ottoman maritime atlas, referred to as the Walters Deniz atlas, perhaps dating to the tenth century AH / sixteenth CE. (Walters Art Museum Ms. W.660, fol.9a)
1300's - China developed sophisticated mapping techniques at about the same time as ancient Rome, and never lost them, so by the medieval period the country had been mapped with considerable detail and accuracy. Chinese world maps showed China at the centre and Europe, half-way round the globe, depicted very small and horizontally compressed at the edge. Significantly, Africa was also mapped from an Indian Ocean perspective, showing the Cape of Good Hope area.