Reading Fluency & Expression
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Fluent readers no longer need to focus on sounding out individual words, as they can read the words quickly and with expression, while focusing on the meaning of the text (TBLD, 2016). Due to this, fluent readers tend to have better comprehension (TBLD, 2016). To practice fluency, students must be reading books that are not too easy and not too difficult and should have many opportunities to read aloud (TBLD, 2016).
During independent reading, students can whisper into the fluency phones while reading. These fluency phones amplify their whisper voices so that they can clearly hear themselves read. This will effectively allow students to practice reading with fluency and expression independently as they read to themselves (TBLD, 2016).

[ READING FLUENCY & EXPRESSION ] Fluency Phones: Amplifying students' voices in oral reading to help them hear themselves and focus while independent reading

Choral reading (or shared reading) is effective in building students' fluency in a safe, comfortable way. Together, all students are reading a story aloud at the same time while focusing on reading with good fluency and expression. Before doing so, it is helpful that educators model how to read with good fluency and expression and then have students try reading that way together (RR, 2017).

Chorale Reading not only builds fluency, it helps build self-confidence.

Partner reading is a very beneficial way to build students' fluency and expression when reading. In this activity, students take turns reading aloud to one another. It is help to pair students with lower fluency with those who are more fluent readers (RR, 2017). However, it can also be helpful for pairs at the same fluency level to practice re-reading a familiar story they have read before to one another (RR, 2017).

Ean explanation of what partner reading is and looks like. For the daily 5 when implemented.

To improve fluency, it is valuable for students to listen to and follow along with audio books that demonstrate what good, fluent and expressive readers sound like (RR, 2017). Students can use this audio book as an inspiration to also want to read with fluency and expression. It may also be valuable for students to record their own reading of books for peers to listen to once they have become fluent at reading a particular book.

My Learning Ally - Audiobooks for Students

I think Reader's Theatre is a very effective way to increase students' fluency and expression, as they are performing a mini-play with their peers. This builds fluency because they are not expected to memorize their parts. Instead, they practice reading the script several times while thinking about reading with fluency and expression for their audience (RR, 2017).

I think Reader's Theatre is a very effective way to increase students' fluency and expression, as they are performing a mini-play with their peers. This builds fluency because they are not expected to memorize their parts. Instead, they practice reading the script several times while thinking about reading with fluency and expression for their audience (RR, 2017).

During guided reading or independent reading, it is helpful to assess students' fluency and expression using a running record as they read aloud (TBLD, 2016). At this point, teachers can observe whether a book is too easy or slightly too difficult to assist them in building fluency and then provide them with a more appropriate book if necessary. Teachers can also offer helpful feedback and guidance to support students on an individual basis during this time.

-- "Guided and Independent Reading: Running Records" - this teacher provides his insights on how to assess students' reading fluency using running records.

"Time to Shine" is a fabulous way to foster fluency and expression when reading, as students select and practice performing a poem with sufficient fluency and expression. When they feel ready, they can read this poem to the class and the teacher can assess their fluency and expression during the performance and then provide helpful, constructive feedback.

INSTRUCTION: In the activity "Time to Shine" - students select, practice and perform a poem in a performance cafe in front of their class. This enhances reading fluency as it incorporates effective strategies such as modeling, practicing and performing.

I think that having various levelled books in the classroom as well as books of high interest is very important in order for students to build fluency and expression. This is essential because students need to read at appropriate levels that are not too difficult in order to improve their fluency. Repeated reading is also important for students to build fluency and expression, so the books they are reading multiple times must be of interest to them (TBLD, 2016).

Have some easy-read books for struggling readers, so they can build confidence and reading fluency.

This chapter in PRF is very valuable, as it provides many strategies that educators can implement in their classrooms to assist students in becoming fluent and expressive readers. For instance, it is helpful to model fluent reading through read-alouds, guide students as they repeatedly read a passage, have them read texts aloud with a 95% accuracy, facilitate shared reading and partner reading, and have them read along with audio books (PRF, 2006, p. 22-24).

This chapter in PRF is very valuable, as it provides many strategies that educators can implement in their classrooms to assist students in becoming fluent and expressive readers. For instance, it is helpful to model fluent reading through read-alouds, guide students as they repeatedly read a passage, have them read texts aloud with a 95% accuracy, facilitate shared reading and partner reading, and have them read along with audio books (PRF, 2006, p. 22-24).

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