Ancient Greek artillery: the Gastraphates, essentially a hand held large crossbow, invented by the Syracusian Greeks. It is said that the first Greek outside of Syracuse to see a Gastraphetes was King Archidamos II of Sparta, Syracuse's ally against Athens who said when he saw it: “O Herakles (Hercules)! This is the end of the valour of men!''
Agathocles of Syracuse (c. 361 - 289 BCE) ruled as tyrant of the Sicilian city for over 25 years. Ambitious, unprincipled, and seeing himself as a new Alexander, he famously attacked Carthage in a three-year campaign and made conquests in southern Italy, but ultimately his quest for a lasting Sicilian-Italian empire failed. (By Mark Cartwright) --AHE
The Siege of Motya took place either in 398 or 397 BC in western Sicily. Dionysius, after securing peace with Carthage in 405 BC, had steadily increased his military power and had tightened his grip on Syracuse. He had fortified Syracuse against sieges and had created a large army of mercenaries and a large fleet, in addition to employing the catapult and quinqueremes for the first time in history.
Battle of Himera (480 BC), supposedly fought on the same day as the more famous Battle of Salamis, or at the same time as the Battle of Thermopylae, saw the Greek forces of Gelon, King of Syracuse, and Theron, tyrant of Agrigentum, defeat the Carthaginian force of Hamilcar the Magonid, ending a Carthaginian bid to restore the deposed tyrant of Himera.
Gorgo was the only known child of King Cleomenes I, & the wife of King Leonidas I. Gorgo is noted as one of the few female historical figures named by Herodotus, & for her political acumen & wisdom. She is unique for being the daughter of a King of Sparta, the wife of another king of Sparta, & the mother of a third king of Sparta. "When asked by a woman from Attica, 'Why are you Spartan women the only ones who can rule men?', she said: 'Because we are also the only ones who give birth to men...