Fluency is the ability to read the text quickly, accurately, and with expression. A fluent reader does not need to allocate focus to decoding text and therefore are better able to think about and understand what they are reading.
Spelling and Word Study: this Memory game is perfect for fun repetition of high frequency sight words. I have used this game across the grade levels with great success. In this video, SK students play, using pre-primer Dolch words.
ASSESSMENT: The Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA) allows teachers to understand what type of reader a student is. The assessment looks at fluency and comprehension, and helps the teacher and students determine what reading level they are at. The DRA is also useful for developing guided reading groups so that students of similar levels are grouped together.
UNDERSTANDING: Repeated reading provides the opportunity for students to read a passage that is meaningful to them and practice reading this passage until a satisfactory level of fluency is achieved. The research also states that fluency achieved in one passage is transferable to other passages. Additionally, this strategy has been found to benefit readers with low fluency and can be applied to teach reading in foreign languages.
UNDERSTANDING: Chapter 3 of Put Reading First (PFR) looks at fluency instruction. The chapter describes what fluency looks like and what research says about fluency instruction. In particular, the article suggests that repeated monitored oral reading can improve fluency and overall reading achievement.