UNDERSTANDING Chapter 9 provides an excellent description of the importance of teaching students the writing processes and strategies to implement them. It specifically discusses "Writer's Workshop" and how to implement it into the classroom.
UNDERSTANDING – Chapter 1 of PRF explains what phonemic awareness is and how it should be taught. In total, it describes eight activities teachers can use to build phonemic awareness and provides examples of each. It also explains the importance of phonemic awareness for reading and spelling. The chapter answers many other important questions related to when to teach phonemic awareness, in what setting, for how long, and in what order should skills be taught (PRF).
INSTRUCTION - Dash to Your Phoneme an exercise that can be used to help students how to identify and isolate the initial sounds in words (PRF). Each session, the teacher chooses two phonemes to review and creates a picture of a noun that starts with each of these sounds. Once the teacher reviews these sounds with students, the teacher calls out words that start with one of these two phonemes and students run to the picture whose initial sound matches that of the target word (BLD).
ASSESSMENT – The MLPP Phonemic Awareness Assessment is used to determine what elements of phonemic awareness students are not grasping. What make this tool so effective are the procedural guidelines it outlines for administration. These procedures reduce the likelihood that extraneous variables will interfere with a student’s performance thereby ensuring test reliability.